Although Abraham is the father of many nations, including the Jews, the Arabs and those who descend from him and his second wife, Keturah, whom he married after the death of Sarah, the Holy Scriptures clearly state that the Abrahamic Covenant and the Land Covenant apply only to the Jewish people. In spite of the fact that Ishmael, from whom a significant number of Arabs claims their descent, is the firstborn son of Abraham, it is Isaac with whom God of the Bible promises to confirm the aforementioned covenants:
And as for Ishmael, I have heard thee: Behold, I have blessed him, and will make him fruitful, and will multiply him exceedingly; twelve princes shall he beget, and I will make him a great nation.
But my covenant will I establish with Isaac, which Sarah shall bear unto thee at this set time in the next year. (Genesis 17:20-21)
When Esau and Jacob were born unto Isaac and Rebekah, it was Jacob, the younger of the twins, whom God chose as the next recipient of His unique promises. The first book of Moses states that the Abrahamic Covenant and the Land Covenant extended to Jacob and his twelve sons who, in turn, became the heads of the twelve tribes of Israel:
And, behold, the LORD stood above it, and said, I am the LORD God of Abraham thy father, and the God of Isaac:
the land whereon thou liest, to thee will I give it, and to thy seed;
And thy seed shall be as the dust of the earth, and thou shalt spread abroad to the west, and to the east, and to the north, and to the south: and in thee and in thy seed shall all the families be blessed. (Genesis 28:13-14)
The distinction between Ishmael and Isaac – the two sons of Abraham insomuch as between Esau and Jacob – the two sons of Isaac is extremely important since it relates to the issue of who is the rightful owner of the land promised by God in the Book of Genesis. It explicitly says that it belongs to the Jewish people. However, a number of Arabic leaders to this very day reject this idea and use their own writings, which appeared about two millennia after Moses penned the first page of Genesis, as their justification for claiming the promised land as their own. Such is the origin of the never-ending conflict in the Middle East between the Jews and the majority of the Arabic nations.